Why multiple intelligences and BAPNE®?
Within the cognitive theories on intelligence, Howard Gardner’s proposal (1983) to consider it as a collection of mental abilities which are related to one another with a neuroscientific basis, aroused the interest of specialists in the field of education. Gardner’s vision was completely new because it defined intelligence as a semi-autonomous system of information processing that manifested itself in the ability to solve problems or create new products that were important for a culture. According to Gardner, all people have the eight multiple intelligences, but differ in the amount and use of each of them, because they show strong points in one or several intelligences and weak points in others.
The BAPNE method organizes its activities within the scope of multiple intelligences for various different reasons:
1. The empirical support based in neurology, neuroscience and the psychometric perspective
2. The results obtained in the intelligence evaluation tests that support teaching based on the multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983) as opposed to the general factor or intelligence (Jensen, 1998).
3. The identification of strong and weak points in students and the adaptation of the teaching content.
4. For the five basic implications for teaching it in the classroom:
4.1. Making education individual to the students. Knowledge of the individual profiles of the students helps the teachers to plan teaching in accordance with individual characteristics.
4.2. Teaching the content of subjects in different ways. Howard Gardner (1991) states that we could teach each topic in the following ways: narration, logic, analysis, manual experience, artistic exploration, philosophical test and interpersonal experience.
4.3. Project-based learning. When working with projects, the intelligences are considered a means and not an end, as they reflect the reality of subjects in which cooperative work is an everyday essential.
4.4. Curriculum based in art. For Gardner, learning arts involved important cognitive skills, and thus they are therefore a way of applying and developing the theory in experiences of meaningful learning.
4.5. Using evaluation within the context with teaching aims. The publications of Gardner, Krechevsky & Seidel show that evaluation should be carried out with relation to:
A. Evaluation should be contextualized within real meaningful activities.
B. Evaluation should provide the opportunity to demonstrate understanding.
C. Evaluation should help the development of the multiple intelligences of the students.
D. Evaluation is a fundamental part of the learning process.
In 1979, the Benard Van Leer Foundation in The Hague, commissioned a group of investigators from Harvard University, led by Howard Gardner, to carry out a study on the "nature of human potential and its realization". This led on from a study in 1904, commissioned by the French Education Ministry and appointed to the psychologist Alfred Binet and his colleagues, to find a model for determining which primary school children were at risk of failure in school. Alfred Binet and his team constructed Intelligence Tests and Intellectual Coefficients, focused on linguistic and mathematical abilities, thus only classifying according to these abilities, and therefore leaving out those who excelled in other types of intelligences. Howard Gardner used this as a spring-board and widened the concept of intelligence, developing another type of equally important abilities, specifying it into eight multiple intelligences.
Why was the multiple intelligences theory (Gardner) chosen, and not the theory of the
general factor of intelligence (Jensen)?
For Jensen, the individual differences in education are difficult to overcome through education; in contrast, Gardner and Strenberg consider that the different intelligences change “as a result of education”. In the BAPNE method, through the teaching processes and the daily contact with students, a change has been seen resulting from the educational focus that the students have received. This is due to the fact that they have learnt a subject in an environment that fully provides learning that is based in different types of teaching and evaluation in relation to the skills, interests and motivation of students.
Do not forget that…
The theory of multiple intelligences is not a style of learning. Styles of learning can be carried out on any type of content and the multiple intelligences have relative potential for neurological functions that respond to a type of connect, because they are capacities which are developed. In the BAPNE method, we develop all these capacities through the activities that are selected for each of the multiple intelligences. Nevertheless, an intelligence should not be confused with mastering of a piece of knowledge, because an intelligence is a capacity and a mastering of a piece of knowledge is a block of pieces of knowledge which gives the individual the opportunity to reach various degrees of skill or expertise.
How is the BAPNE method made systematic?
The teaching sequence of the content in training in the BAPNE method is very methodical, and as such is designed primarily around a biomechanical and neurological basis (through the activation of all the cerebral lobes). Its aim is to develop independence of the upper and lower body, and speaking out loud at the same time.